Y-DNA Testing (Direct Male to Male Paternal Lines)
Y-DNA Testing is the only type of DNA testing that proves the direct male to male line. I can go back thousands of years from son to father to father's father etc. Think of it as a paternity test that goes back many generations. This test recently connected the Alldays of the United States to their Allday family cousins in London, England, proving the two lines of Alldays were unbroken for at least 400 years and also establishing that the first American Allday immigrant really did come here from London England in the early 1600s. I strongly recommend using FamilyTreeDNA for this test because it has the largest and (in my option) best database. Techinically it's the only company that allows you to connect to your Allday /Alday cousins and prove lineage. Since this test eliminates your father's mother's line, your grandfather's mothers line, your mother's father's (or mother's) line etc, you know any results come from strictly the male to male to male direct line. As mentioned previously, it is a paternity test that goes back thousands of years. If your Allday/Alday grandparent from 500 years ago was a ship captain and left behind some sons in Brazil and one of them takes the Y-DNA test, you will connect to them. If Germany was your GGGG grandfather's homeland and an Allday/Alday from Germany takes the test, then he will connect to you. Y-DNA cuts out the errors, infidelities, adoptions, and other Non-Paternal Events (NPEs). The one thing about the Y-DNA test is that it is for males only. If you are a female and want to have your father's line tested at FamilytreeDNA then you will have to either submit your Father's Y-DNA or talk one of your brothers or your father's (or grandfather's) brothers into taking the test.
What Allday - Alday - Audley YDNA Has Taught us so Far
What Allday - Alday - Audley YDNA Has Taught us so Far
Southeastern USA Alldays / Aldays - Haplogroup R-M269 (also named R1b1b2ala2d) which is the most dominate haplogroup in Northwestern Europe. King Niall of the Nine Hostages descended from this same common male back thousands of years ago. This Alday / Allday line came from Josiah Alday via 1700's of the Virginia Colony, USA. Y-DNA made the link to prove Josiah's line as solid. We are hoping one of the descendents of Josiah's brother Seth Alday will take the test and prove Perrin Allday as their father.
Southwestern USA Alday Family (Hispanic) -Q-M19 AND R-M269 Haplogroup. Note that some of the the Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana Allday / Alday lines also moved into the Southwest and they are the same as described above in the Southeastern Alldays / Aldays. However, one Alday from California has a long Mexican heritage. This particular Alday line is haplogroup Q-M19 which has been detected in 59% of Amazonian Ticuna men and in 10% of Wayuu men. As more Mexican and Central American and even Southwest American Alday males take the Y-DNA test on FamilyTreeDNA, we will learn more about how far spread out this Alday line is.
Birmingham, England Allday's - This Allday line is also the R-M269 Haplogroup, but is not the same direct male line (in recent history) as the Southeastern USA Alldays. However, it does connect to the Audley males of England. At least, some of them. There appears to be an error in a baptismal recording in the 1600's showing the Audleys as Alldays, yet they kept the Audley name. More research should be done as to why they kept the Audley name when the Baptimal records clearly show Allday.
London, England Allday's - This Allday line is also the R-M269 Haplogroup and it also is a direct predecessor to the Allday / Alday colonial line that immigrated to colonial America in the early 1600s. This particular London Allday taking the test is truly a genetic miracle as having 400 years of unbroken Allday lineage on the southeastern Alldays and the London Alldays (who never immigrated away from England), with no adoptions, no infidelities etc is just short of miraculous. We have the Allday English families who never came to America connecting to the American Allday families who left London, England 400 years ago. This is the kind of stuff that genealogists dream of and is history in the making. Without Y-DNA there would be no proof. Even with a documented papertrail going back 400 years, there would still be no proof that there wasn't a non-paternal event such as an adoption or a regularly visiting milk man who became very friendly with an Allday wife at some point.
London, England Allday's - This Allday line is the I-M253 Haplogroup and different from the other London set of Alldays. This is also called the I2 Haplogroup. It is the dominate haplogroup in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. It is not the same direct male line (in recent history) as the Southeastern USA Alldays and it does not connect to the one Birmingham, England Allday or the other London Allday family who matched the American Alldays. So, yes, Y-DNA has now proven there are at least two Allday sets of London, England Alldays. It's possible that they connect via a paper trail but if so, there was a Non-Paternal Event at some point. This particular Allday test taker connects to many of the Webb men in England on his paternal line. What came first - This Allday line or the Webb line? Only time and more people taking the test will answer this question. Hopefully, more will take the test to help solve the mystery.
Autosomal testing is the other type (see the link above) which connects you to all cousins and all grandparents within a certain number of generations before the DNA disappears. You will literally see thousands of DNA cousins when using this test but unless they have a very accurate family tree and you share a lot of DNA, you will not know who the grandparents (or multiple sets of grandparents) you share. Unless you have a solid tree, you may see all of these cousins and will not know who they are. Rest assured however, that they are your cousins. I've spoken with half a dozen people over the years that found suprises when they took this test. Maybe a full brother or sister (who was adopted out), or maybe a half brother or sister (that was a secret). More people take this test than the Y-DNA test but by itself, it does not prove the direct male to male paternal heritage.